Monday, January 01, 2001

Chronology of main events 1990-2001

Chronology of main events

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War News Index


Aug 2 After months of tension, the Iraqi army invades Kuwait. The United Nations
Security Council passes Resolution 660 condemning the Invasion and demanding Iraq's immediate and unconditional withdrawal.

Aug 3 Arab League calls for Iraq's withdrawal from Kuwait.


Jan 9 US-Iraq talks fail.

Jan 13 UN Secretary-General's talks with Iraq fail.

Jan 16 Air war begins, destroying much of Iraq's civilian infrastructure.

Jan 21 Iran protests scale of bombing.

Jan 29 French defence minister Chevènement resigns in protest against scale of bombing.

Feb 3 Pope John Paul II rejects the claim that the war against Iraq is a "just war."

Feb.28 War ends.

Mar 20 Ahtisaari Report to Security Council on humanitarian crisis in Iraq and Kuwait. "…Most means of modern life support have been destroyed or rendered tenuous." "Sanctions in respect of food supplies should immediately be removed." No remedy to humanitarian need, "without dealing with the underlying need for energy."

Apr 3 Resolution 687 begins cease-fire, establishes UN Special Commission on weapons, extends sanctions by tying them to Iraq's weapons. UK ambassador Sir David Hannay states in the Council that "it will in fact prove impossible for Iraq to rejoin the community of civilized nations while Saddam Hussein remains in power."

Apr 5. Resolution 688 condemns "the repression of the Iraqi civilian population" in the ensuing civil war.

Mid-Apr US, UK and France organize a "no-fly" zone in northern Iraq, while Operation Provide Comfort carves out an autonomous zone in a large part of the Kurdish areas.

Jul 17 UN mission to Iraq led by Sadruddin Aga Khan concludes that Iraq needs $22 billion that year to provide civilian services at pre-war levels.

Aug 15 Resolution 706 acknowledges the Sadruddin Aga Khan Report and calls for oil sales not to exceed $1.6 billion over 6 months to be placed in escrow account, deducting 30% for a Compensation Commission, plus UNSCOM and other international obligations, leaving less than 1/3 of the Report's recommended amount for humanitarian aid.

Sep 19 Resolution 712 proposes that Iraq be allowed $1.6 billion oil sales over six months, of which $900 million would be available for civilian needs, disregarding the Secretary General's request that the cap be raised.


Feb 1 Iraq rejects 706 and 712.

Feb 5 Council declares that Iraq "therefore bears full responsibility for their humanitarian problems."

August US, UK and France establish no-fly zone in southern Iraq


Jan 13 US, UK and France attack Iraq with aircraft and cruise missiles. US and UK continue air strikes on January 17 and June 26.


Jan UN Secretary General Boutros Ghali issues a report calling sanctions a "blunt instrument"

Apr 14 Resolution 986 allows Iraqi government $2 billion in oil sales every six months. 13% of total available funds set aside for UN use in the northern governorates. Sanctions Committee must review and approve all supplies purchased through escrow account.

May 12 US Ambassador to the UN Madeleine Albright, in response to claims of half a million child deaths in sanctioned Iraq, replies: "I think this is a very hard choice, but the price - we think the price is worth it."

May 20 Iraq is no longer able to provide survival sustenance for its civilian population. Iraqi government and UN reach agreement on implementing Resolution 986.

Sep 3-4 In Operation Desert Strike, US fires cruise missiles at Iraqi targets

Dec 10 First oil sales start, beginning the Oil-for-Food program. It has since been renewed mostly in six month phases.

Feb 20 Oil-for-Food oil sales cap increased to $5.256 billion per six month phase.

Dec UNSCOM's credibility is undermined by evidence that staff members seconded to the agency by the United States have compromised the independence of the agency and engaged in espionage and covert action to overthrow the Iraq government.

Dec 15 UN weapons inspectors withdraw from Iraq due to impending aerial attacks by the United States and the UK.
Dec 16-19 Operation Desert Fox air campaign by US and UK

Mar 30 Security Council panel report finds that Iraq had ``experienced a shift from relative affluence to massive poverty'' and predicted that ``the humanitarian situation in Iraq will continue to be a dire one in the absence of a sustained revival of the Iraqi economy, which in turn cannot be achieved solely through remedial humanitarian efforts.''

Aug 12 UNICEF estimates that an additional half million children under five who would be alive under normal circumstances had died in Iraq between 1991 and 1998.

Dec 17 Resolution 1284 offers improvements in Oil-for-Food, although less than those recommended by the Security Council panel, and expresses its intention to suspend sanctions with the ``fundamental objective of improving the humanitarian situation'' in Iraq. The oil sales cap is removed and some items are allowed into Iraq with automatic Security Council approval.

Jun 8 Resolution 1302 establishes a team of "independent experts to prepare by
November 26, 2000 a comprehensive report and analysis of the humanitarian situation". Iraqi government does not allow the team to enter its territory. Security Council rejects the alternative of a report based on UN agency information and other reliable external sources.

Dec 5 Resolution 1330 further expands lists of humanitarian items. Compensation fund reduced to 25% from 30% of oil revenues with the additional resources targeted to vulnerable groups.

May-Jun UK, French, and Russian draft resolutions propose various new approaches. The UK proposes a Goods Review List of potential dual-use items and land-based border monitoring of Iraq trade. Objections by Russia and by Iraq, as well as differences among Permanent Members blocks Council action.

Jun 6 One month extension of Oil-for-Food under previous conditions.

Jul 4 Lacking agreement with Iraq, five month extension of existing Oil-for- Food.

Nov 29 Oil-for-Food program extended by six months in Resolution 1382. Resolution proposes a Goods Review List to be adopted in May.

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